Science and the World We Live In

 

Chemistry I.

Secondary Science Resources

Course Description

Chemistry is a course that explores the properties of substances and the changes that substances undergo. The student will investigate the following:

  • Atomic Structure
  • Matter and Energy
  • Interactions of Matter
  • Properties of Solutions and Acids and Bases

Students should explore chemistry through inquiry, hands-on laboratory investigations, individual studies, and group activities. The students’ experiences in chemistry should enable them to understand the role of chemistry in their lives by investigating substances that occur in nature, in living organisms, and those that are created by humans. Their study should include both qualitative and quantitative descriptions of matter and the changes that matter undergo. Students should practice the necessary precautions for performing safe inquiries and activities and appreciate the risks and benefits of producing and using chemical substances.

Standard Number: 1.0 Atomic Structure

Standard: The student will investigate atomic structure and how this determines the physical and chemical properties of matter.

Learning Expectations:

The student will

Performance Indicators State:

As documented through state assessment,

at Level 1, the student is able to

  • categorize an element as a metal, metalloid, nonmetal, or noble gas based on its position in the periodic table.
  • identify an element’s atomic number and name or symbol, given the number of protons or electrons in a neutral atom using a periodic table.
  • identify protons, neutrons and electrons with regard to their relative mass, relative charge, and location in an atom.

at Level 2, the student is able to

  • identify the major characteristics of various models of the atom: Democritus, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, and the modern quantum mechanical model.
  • determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom or ion, given the symbol of the atom or ion and a periodic table.
  • compare s and p orbitals in an energy level in terms of general shape, energy and/or numbers of electrons possible.
  • determine the Lewis electron-dot structure or number of valence electrons for an atom of any main group element (1, 2, 13-18), given its atomic number or its position in the periodic table.

at Level 3, the student is able to

  • describe the trends present in the periodic table with respect to atomic size, ionization energy, electron affinity or electronegativity.

Performance Indicators Teacher:

As documented through teacher observation,

at Level 1, the student is able to

  • identify an isotope when given the number of protons and neutrons.
  • draw Bohr models for the first 18 elements.

at Level 2, the student is able to

  • write the arrangement of electrons by orbital notation, electron configuration notation, and electron-dot notation.
  • predict the charge of an ion usually formed by the main-group elements (1, 2, 13-18) using the periodic table.
  • organize atoms from the main- group elements (1, 2, 13-18) based on atomic radii.
  • support the existence of the atom using the laws of definite composition, conservation of matter, and multiple proportion.
  • calculate the average atomic mass of an element from the percent distribution and masses of isotopes.
  • explain the formation of anions and cations.
  • use the Bohr model to draw an electron moving from its ground state to an excited state, and/or represent the emission of energy as it returns from an excited state to a lower energy state.
  • recognize names of famous scientists and identify their major contributions: Neils Bohr, James Chadwick, John Dalton, Max Planck, Ernest Rutherford, J.J. Thomson.
  • describe the differences between the Bohr model of the atom and the quantum mechanical (QM) electron-cloud model of the atom.
  • calculate wavelength, frequency or energy of a photon of electromagnetic radiation, given the formula and constants.
  • research careers that relate to atomic structure, such as astronomy, nuclear medical technician, research physicist, chemist, etc.

at Level 3, the student is able to

  • compare s, p, d, and f orbitals in an energy level in terms of general shape, energy or number of electrons possible.
  • determine quantum numbers for elements given the electron configuration.
  • explain in a paragraph why some elements do not have the predicted electron configuration; for example, copper tends to have an electron configuration of [ Ar] 4s13d10 instead of [ Ar] 4s23d9.
  • justify the quark combinations that make protons and neutrons, given the charges of the up and down quarks.
  • write the nuclear equation involving alpha or beta particles, given the mass number of the parent isotope and complete symbols for alpha or beta emissions.

Sample Task:

Flame Test Demonstration

Material Needed:

  • glass petri dishes or watch glasses
  • chloride compounds (CuCl2, SrCl2, CaCl2, LiCl, etc.)
  • ethanol (ethyl alcohol) or isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol)

Place 0.5 g of each salt in separate watch glasses or petri dishes; add 20 mL of alcohol. Stir to distribute the salt in the alcohol. Light and observe the characteristic color of each metal’s spectrum. The students may also look at the flame through a spectroscope or diffraction grating.

Integration/Linkages:

physics, mathematics, graphing, radioactivity, nuclear medicine, nuclear physics, imagination, problem-solving skills, history, calculator and computer skills, laboratory skills, scale and model, careers, culture, visual arts, writing, and research

Standard Number: 2.0 Matter and Energy

Standard: The student will investigate the characteristics of matter and the interaction of matter and energy.

Learning Expectations:

The student will

Performance Indicators State:

As documented through state assessment,

at Level 1, the student is able to

  • identify a pure substance as element or compound, when given its chemical name or formula.
  • distinguish among elements, compounds, solutions, colloids, and suspensions, given examples.
  • classify changes in matter as physical or chemical, given examples or scenarios.
  • classify properties of matter as physical or chemical when given examples or scenarios.
  • distinguish between heat content and temperature when given a unit, a definition, or an example.

at Level 2, the student is able to

  • distinguish among gases, liquids, and solids in terms of particle spacing and relative movement, given a diagram or scenario.
  • predict the effect of changing one gas variable (volume, temperature, or pressure) on another variable, given a scenario.
  • demonstrate an understanding of the law of conservation of matter, given experimental data.
  • categorize a process as endothermic or exothermic, given an example or scenario.

at Level 3, the student is able to

  • demonstrate an understanding of the law of conservation of energy by equating heat loss and heat gain in an interaction, given the formulas -q = q and q = mcD t, and the specific heat.

Performance Indicators Teacher:

As documented through teacher observation,

at Level 1, the student is able to

  • estimate equivalent Fahrenheit and Celsius temperatures and convert between Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales.
  • measure the mass and volume of solids and liquids using appropriate equipment, methods, and units
  • determine the density of solids and liquids.
  • read a thermometer and determine the temperature accurately.

at Level 2, the student is able to

  • distinguish between accuracy and precision.
  • create data tables and graphs from experimental data.
  • analyze data by computing a percentage error.
  • record measurements and results of calculations using the correct number of significant figures.
  • characterize a relationship between two variables as directly or inversely proportional.
  • use conversion factors, dimensional analysis, and ratio and proportion to convert between quantities.
  • express large and small numbers using scientific notation and perform calculations in scientific notation.
  • practice appropriate safety procedures when working in the laboratory.
  • research careers that relate to matter and energy such as, surveyor, carpenter, structural engineer, HVAC technician, pathologist, etc.

at Level 3, the student is able to

  • identify an unknown metal by determining its specific heat, using a calorimeter.

Sample Task:

Bell, Jerry. "Mystery Powders: An Inquiry Activity." Chemistry in the National

Science Education Standards. Chapter 5.

Students are given samples of seven white powders, each of which is a common household substance, and five test reagents. They are to develop a procedure to distinguish among the powders based on their physical and chemical properties, and to identify each powder when given a chart of expected results. The seven white solids are baking powder, baking soda, sugar, flour, sugar substitute, washing soda, and calcium supplement. The test reagents are water, phenolphthalein (or pH test paper), vinegar, iodine solution and alcohol.

Integration/Linkages:

physical science, mathematics, problem solving skills, environmental science, earth science, biology, scientific inquiry skills, analysis and representation of data, graphing skills

Standard Number: 3.0 Interactions of Matter

Standard: The student will examine the interactions of matter.

Learning Expectations:

The student will

Performance Indicators State:

As documented through state assessment,

at Level 1, the student is able to

  • distinguish between a chemical symbol and a chemical formula, given examples.
  • identify the reactants and products in a chemical reaction, given a balanced chemical equation.
  • explain the differences among the composition, decomposition, double replacement, and single replacement types of chemical reactions, given a balanced equation.
  • determine the number of atoms, formula units, or molecules of a particular substance, given a balanced equation.

at Level 2, the student is able to

  • distinguish between ionic and covalent compounds, given binary formulas.
  • identify the formula for a compound using a periodic table and a list of common ions, given the name of the compound.
  • identify the name of compounds and common acids (sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, and phosphoric acid), using a periodic table and a list of common ions.
  • select a correctly balanced chemical equation, when given examples.
  • recognize a balanced chemical equation using appropriate symbols, given a word equation.
  • convert between any two of the following quantities of a substance:
    • mass
    • number of moles
    • number of particles
    • molar volume (at STP)
  • determine molar ratios expressed in balanced chemical equations.
  • analyze percent composition of the elements in a compound, given the formula.
  • solve mass to mass stoichiometry problems.

at Level 3, the student is able to

  • identify and solve different types of stoichiometry problems.

Performance Indicators Teacher:

As documented through teacher observation,

at Level 1, the student is able to

  • write a balanced equation and identify the reactants and products.

at Level 2, the student is able to

  • draw models of atoms that are bonded ionically and covalently.
  • write the formulas for compounds, given the names of compounds.
  • write the names of compounds, given examples of chemical formulas using the stock system.
  • write a balanced chemical equation and classify as to type, given a word description of a chemical reaction.
  • calculate and measure the actual molar mass of a substance and relate it to the number of particles.
  • predict the products of a single or double replacement chemical reaction, given an activity series and a solubility chart.
  • research careers that relate to interactions of matter, such as pharmacist technician, industrial chemist, chemical technician, chemical engineer, etc.

at Level 3, the student is able to

  • draw shapes of molecules and label bond angles, bond polarity, and molecule polarity, given a formula.
  • predict amounts of product given mole or mass amounts of reactants in an experiment and compare actual yield to theoretical yield.
  • use percentage composition to determine the empirical or molecular formula of an unknown substance.

Sample Task:

  1. Using molecular model kits, have students construct shapes of various molecules.
  2. Using marshmallows or gumdrops and toothpicks, have students construct elements and compounds involved in a balanced chemical equation.
  3. Direct students to calculate the molar mass of a substance and measure that amount into a sealable plastic bag to demonstrate mole amounts.
  4. Have students make a model of the molar volume of a gas using balloons or boxes.

Integration/Linkages:

physical science, mathematics, art skills, measurement skills and tools, problem solving skills, scale and model, biology, nutrition science, lifetime wellness, geometry, cosmetology, and building trades

Standard Number: 4.0 Solutions and Acids/Bases

Standard: The student will investigate the characteristics of solutions with particular attention to acids and bases.

Learning Expectations:

The student will

  • 4.1 investigate the characteristics of solutions.
  • 4.2 investigate the characteristics of acids and bases.

Performance Indicators State:

As documented through state assessment,

at Level 1, the student is able to

  • classify substances as acids or bases, given the formula.

at Level 2, the student is able to

  • identify the solute and solvent in a solid, liquid or gaseous solution, given its composition.
  • classify a solution as saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated, given the composition of the solution and a solubility graph.
  • calculate the concentration of a solution in terms of molarity or mass percent, given mass of solute, and mass or volume of solution.
  • classify a substance as an acid or a base, given its properties (e.g., color of litmus, color of phenolphthalein, taste, pH and slippery or non-slippery).

at Level 3, the student is able to

  • predict the products of a neutralization reaction involving inorganic acids and bases, given the reactants.

Performance Indicators Teacher:

As documented through teacher observation,

at Level 1, the student is able to

  • demonstrate the factors (temperature, stirring, particle size and concentration) that affect the rate at which a solute dissolves.
  • determine the acidity/basicity of substances by observing their effect on various indicators.

at Level 2, the student is able to

  • describe how to prepare a dilute solution from a concentrated solution of known molarity.
  • perform a neutralization reaction.
  • research careers that relate to solutions, such as cosmetologist, environmental scientist, water quality control technician, artist, etc.

at Level 3, the student is able to

  • investigate colligative properties, i.e. the effect on freezing point and boiling point when a solute is added to a solvent.
  • demonstrate knowledge of neutralization reactions by performing a titration.
  • calculate the molality of solutions.
  • classify a solution as neutral, acidic, or basic, and calculate the pH, given the hydrogen ion concentration or hydroxide ion concentration.

Sample Task:

Students will classify various household substances as acid or base using various natural and synthetic indicators.

Interactions/Linkages:

biology, physical science, mathematics, earth science, ecology, measuring skills and tools, critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, calculator and computer-based skills, industry, research, writing, communications, science and society, history, careers, economics, natural resources, scale and model, food science, engineering, cosmetology, and auto technology

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

Resources,  Podcasts

Kindergarten

First Grade

Second Grade

Third Grade

Fourth Grade

Fifth Grade

Sixth Grade

Seventh Grade

Eighth Grade

Biology

Chemistry

Science Fair

Dynamic Curriculum

Math/Science Integration

Science Online

Math Online