TENNESSEE SCIENCE UNIT Gravity UNIT TITLE Gravity:  Using Science & Math to Measure and Calculate the Force of  Gravity in Jefferson County AUTHOR(S) Jim Marquardt & Claude Chafin COURSE/ GRADE LEVEL Foundations I Math / Physical Science (9 – 12) CONTENT AREA Math/Science TOPIC Math (Using Formulas) Science (Gravity & Newton’s 2nd Law) TIME FRAME 7 school days (50 minute class sessions per day) NUMBER OF LESSONS 7 (3 math / 4 science) TARGETED TENNESSEE STANDARDS/ LEARNING EXPECTATIONS Science Standards: 1.2      analyze and apply Newton’s three laws of motion. 1.3      relate gravitational force to mass. SPI     choose the illustration or scenario that relates the effect of gravitational force on falling bodies or satellites. TPI    demonstrate the effect of gravity on objects. SPI     solve application problems related to velocity, acceleration, force, work, and power using appropriate units of measurement, given the equations. SPI solve application problems related to velocity, acceleration, force, work, and power using appropriate units of measurement, given the equations. TPI gather and analyze data to solve problems related to velocity, acceleration, force, work, and power, given the equations v=d/t, a=∆v/t, F=ma, W=Fd, and P=W/t. SPI distinguish among the concepts inherent in Newton’s three laws of motion, given a scenario. TPI evaluate scenarios that illustrate Newton’s three laws of motion   Math Standards: 1.10     select and apply an appropriate method (i.e., mental arithmetic, paper and pencil, or technology) for computing with real numbers, and evaluate the reasonableness of results. 2.6     apply the concept of variable in simplifying algebraic expressions, solving equations, and solving inequalities. 4.5     demonstrate an understanding of rates and other derived and indirect measurements (e.g., velocity, miles per hr, rpm, and cost per unit). SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT Students will be expected to explain gravity and its effects.  They will understand how gravity affects different objects, and why.  Students will be able to use their knowledge to solve problems involving gravitational force, and they will be able to explain how to determine the force of gravity using experimentation.   Students will be able to take experimental data and use that data to solve algebraic problems and formulas.

###### OVERVIEW OF STUDENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES

In this phase of the unit, the teacher will need to assess prior student knowledge of gravity, Newton’s laws of motion, equation solving processes, and the use of mathematical formulas.  Finally, teachers will cover new terms and topics that need to be discussed.

Students will learn to solve formulas and algebraic equations.

The students conduct a scientific experiment to gather data necessary to determine the acceleration of gravity.

Exploration:  Data Collection

Students will calculate gravity from their experimental data.

Calculations:  Finding the Force of Gravity

The class will discuss the gravity experiment and the results that were calculated.  Students should be able to explain why the objects fell at different speeds as well as why their values may have differed from the standard values of accepted gravity.

Discussion:  What was our gravity?

Students will use experimental data, obtained through previous calculations, to predict the mass of each of the objects.  The actual mass of the objects will also be calculated using the accepted standard value for gravitational acceleration.

Extension:  Calculating Mass From Experimental Data

Students will conduct a laboratory exercise to measure the actual mass of each object.  These masses will then be compared to the calculated values from lesson 5.

Exploration:  Determining Masses of Objects