Some Conventions Used for Scoring Running Records
Some examples taken from An Observation Survey by Marie Clay, Heinemann, 1993.  The publisher and author gives permission to copy the pages for teachers to use with students but not for commercial use.
(The text is written below the line and what the child says is written above the line.)

  • Correct Reading 
 Examples: Bill is asleep.
   "Wake up, Bill,"
   said Peter.
**** If a child tries several times to read a word, record all his trials.
Example: `Child: here/ h--/ home
         Text: house
This counts as one error.
Example: Child: h--/ho--/home 
      Text: home 
This does not count as an error.
  • Substitutions (One error each time) 
Example Child: I went to go.
      Text: I want to go.
If the child makes an error in a name, the child is told the name and the error is counted only one time, even if the child repeatedly makes an error on the name. It is noted, but counted only as one error. For example, if a child substitutes Mary for Marion many times in the text, it counts only as one error. However, if a child repeatedly substitutes run for ran in the text, it counts as an error each time.
  • Omissions (One error each time) 
Example: Child: the dog 
     Text: the little dog
  • Insertions (One error each time)
Example Child: the big house 
    Text: the house 
  • Tolds (One error each time) T
If a child balks, unable to proceed because he is aware he has made an error and cannot correct it, or because he cannot attempt the next word, he is told the word.
 Example: Child: I want to go (pause longer than 5 seconds)
      Text: I want to go home.
  • Appeals  (One error each time only if the child needs to be told the word) A
Example 1( 1error): A/T

Example 2 (no error): A/SC

An appeal for help from the child is turned back to the child for further effort before telling the word. The teacher will often say "Try something." or "You try it."

  • Repetitions:  R      or            R

A Repetition is not counted as error behavior. Sometimes it is used to confirm a previous attempt. Often it results in self-correction. R is used to indicate the repetition of a word. R2 or R3 indicates the number of repetitions.
 Example: Child: Jane went to my house. house
        Text: Jane went to my house.
 Example: Child: Here is the little house. the little house.

         Text: Here is the little house.

A Repetition can be a word, a phrase, or an entire sentence. While a Repetition itself is not counted as an error, it can result as an error, a self-correction, or an affirmation of a correct response.

  • Try That Again (TTA)
Sometimes a child gets into such a state of confusion; it becomes necessary to redirect him. If the teacher decides this is necessary, she should simply say," Try that again." and mark TTA on the record. The teacher should put brackets around the first set of muddled behavior, mark TTA, but only count that as one error. Then, begin a fresh record of the same text. 



Running Records

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